source：Teach Abroad time：2018-10-23 13:41:38 read:2017
The Five Great Ancient Capitals of China including Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang, Kaifeng, and Xi’an (Chang’an) are the most famous ones in China. They experience the history of China and still stand in this land to tell the generations what happened in the past time externally.
Top Ancient Capitals of China
Top 1 Beijing
Beijing was and has been the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):
State of Yan (Yen in WG) in Spring and Autumn Period (722-481 B.C.): called Ji
Liao Dynasty (907-1125), as a secondary capital: called Yanjing
Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) from Emperor Shizong until 1215: called Zhongdu
Yuan Dynasty (1271 to 1368): called Dadu in Chinese, Daidu (a direct transliteration from Chinese) in Mongolian and Khanbaliq in the Turkic languages. This was reported as "Cambuluc" by Marco Polo.
Ming Dynasty from the time of the Ming Yongle Emperor (r. 1402/1424) until 1644 called Jīngshī.
Qing Dynasty from the fall of the Ming in 1644 to the end of the dynasty in 1912.
The Beiyang Government of the Republic of China.
The current capital of the People's Republic of China.
Historical Attractions in Beijing:
Tiananmen Square, Forbidden City, Simatai Great Wall, Badaling Great Wall, Mutianyu Great Wall, Temple of Heaven, The Peking Man Site, The Ming Tombs, The Bell and Drum Tower, Prince Gong's Mansion, The Summer Palace
Top 2 Xi’an (Chang’an)
Xi'an (WG: Hsi'an; called Chang'an in ancient times) was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):
Western Zhou Dynasty, also see Fenghao.
State of Qin in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Qin Dynasty 221 B.C.-207 B.C.: Xi'an is located near the former Qin capital Xianyang.
Western Han Dynasty from 206 B.C. to A.D. 9
Xin Dynasty from 8 to 23
Eastern Han Dynasty
Western Jin Dynasty
State of Former Zhao, a state in the Sixteen Kingdoms period during the Jin Dynasty (265-420).
State of Former Qin from 351 to 394, during the Sixteen Kingdoms period.
State of Later Qin from 384 to 417, during the Sixteen Kingdoms period.
Western Wei Dynasty
Northern Zhou Dynasty
Sui Dynasty from 581 to 618
Tang Dynasty from 618 to 907
Historical Attractions in Xi’an:
Shaanxi Provincial History Museum, Big/Small Wild Goose Pagoda, The Great Mosque, Bell Drum Tower, Ancient City Wall, Qin Terracotta Army
Top 3 Nanjing
Nanjing (formerly Romanized Nanking (CPMR) or Nanching in WG) was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):
all of the Six Dynasties: called Jianye (建業 Jiànyè) or Jiankang (建康 Jiànkāng). The Six Dynasties are:
Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms
Eastern Jin Dynasty
Liu Song Dynasty
Southern Qi Dynasty
Ming Dynasty before Yongle Emperor moved the capital to Beijing.
Taiping Tianguo (Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace and Prosperity) during the Taiping Rebellion. Known as Tianjing (天京, literally 'Heavenly Capital') between 1853 and its fall in 1864
Republic of China after the Northern Expedition until the Japanese invasion in 1937 of WWII, and after the war until Chiang Kai-Shek retreated to Taiwan in 1949.
Historical Attractions in Nanjing:
Confucius Temple, Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Zhonghua Gate
Top 4 Luoyang
Luoyang was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):
Eastern Zhou Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty from 25 to 220
Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms.
Western Jin Dynasty
Northern Wei Dynasty since 493, moved its capital from Datong.
Later Tang Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Historical Attractions in Luoyang:
White Horse Temple, Guanlin Temple, Shaolin Temple, Longmen Grottoes
Top 5 Kaifeng
Kaifeng was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):
Later Liang Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Later Jin Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Later Han Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Later Zhou Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Northern Song Dynasty: called Dongjing (東京 Dōngjīng)
Historical Attraction in Kaifeng:
Xiangguo Monastery, Iron Pagoda Park, Dragon Pavilion Park, Shanxi-Shaanxi-Gansu Guild Hall
Top ancient capitals of China carry the history of China, if you are a China history buff, these five ancient cities will meet your curiosity. No matter the culture, architecture, food, dialect, or something else, you can experience trace of history.